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TMCNet:  U.S. Patents Awarded to Inventors in New York (Feb. 1)

[February 01, 2013]

U.S. Patents Awarded to Inventors in New York (Feb. 1)

(Targeted News Service Via Acquire Media NewsEdge) Targeted News Service Targeted News Service ALEXANDRIA, Va., Feb. 1 -- The following federal patents were awarded to inventors in New York.

*** Symbol Technologies Assigned Patent ALEXANDRIA, Va., Feb. 1 -- Symbol Technologies, Holtsville, N.Y., has been assigned a patent (8,363,617) developed by David Meyer, East Meadow, N.Y., for "selecting an access point from a plurality of access points." The abstract of the patent published by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office states: "Techniques are provided for selecting an access point (AP) to communicate with from a plurality of candidate access points (APs) when a wireless computing device (WCD) roams in a wireless local area network (WLAN). The WCD stores a pairwise master key (PMK) for each access point that the WCD has previously established a PMK with during authentication. The WCD a plurality of candidate access points and determines an AP statistic (APS) associated with each candidate AP. The WCD then determines an AP rating for each candidate AP based on the APS for the candidate AP and whether the wireless computing device has a pairwise master key stored for the candidate AP. The WCD then selects a particular one of the candidate APs having the highest AP rating as a desired AP of the wireless computing device." The patent application was filed on Aug. 27, 2008 (12/199,599). The full-text of the patent can be found at http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser Sect1=PTO2&Sect2=HITOFF&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsearch-bool.html&r=1&f=G&l=50&co1=AND&d=PTXT&s1=8,363,617&OS=8,363,617&RS=8,363,617 Written by Satyaban Rath; edited by Hemanta Panigrahi.



*** Macronix International, International Business Machines Assigned Patent ALEXANDRIA, Va., Feb. 1 -- Macronix International, Hsinchu, Taiwan, and International Business Machines, Armonk, N.Y., have been assigned a patent (8,363,463) developed by nine co-inventors for a "phase change memory having one or more non-constant doping profiles." The co-inventors are Yen-Hao Shih, Elmsford, N.Y., Huai-Yu Cheng, Hsinchu, Taiwan, Chieh-Fang Chen, Panchiao, Taiwan, Chao-I. Wu, Hsinchu, Taiwan, Ming Hsiu Lee, Hsinchu, Taiwan, Hsiang-Lan Lung, Dobbs Ferry, N.Y., Matthew J. Breitwisch, Yorktown Heights, N.Y., Simone Raoux, New York, and Chung H Lam, Peekskill, N.Y.

The abstract of the patent published by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office states: "A phase change memory device with a memory element including a basis phase change material, such as a chalcogenide, and one or more additives, where the additive or additives have a non-constant concentration profile along an inter-electrode current path through a memory element. The use of "non-constant" concentration profiles for additives enables doping the different zones with different materials and concentrations, according to the different crystallographic, thermal and electrical conditions, and different phase transition conditions." The patent application was filed on March 23, 2010 (12/729,837). The full-text of the patent can be found at http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser Sect1=PTO2&Sect2=HITOFF&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsearch-bool.html&r=1&f=G&l=50&co1=AND&d=PTXT&s1=8,363,463&OS=8,363,463&RS=8,363,463 Written by Satyaban Rath; edited by Hemanta Panigrahi.

*** International Business Machines Assigned Patent for Temperature Control Device for Optoelectronic Devices ALEXANDRIA, Va., Feb. 1 -- International Business Machines, Armonk, N.Y., has been assigned a patent (8,363,686) developed by five co-inventors for a "temperature control device for optoelectronic devices." The co-inventors are Solomon Assefa, Elmsford, N.Y., William M. Green, Astoria, N.Y., Younghee Kim, Mohegan Lake, N.Y., Joris Van Campenhout, Astoria, N.Y., and Yurii Vlasov, Katonah, N.Y.

The abstract of the patent published by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office states: "Current may be passed through an n-doped semiconductor region, a recessed metal semiconductor alloy portion, and a p-doped semiconductor region so that the diffusion of majority charge carriers in the doped semiconductor regions transfers heat from or into the semiconductor waveguide through Peltier-Seebeck effect. Further, a temperature control device may be configured to include a metal semiconductor alloy region located in proximity to an optoelectronic device, a first semiconductor region having a p-type doping, and a second semiconductor region having an n-type doping. The temperature of the optoelectronic device may thus be controlled to stabilize the performance of the optoelectronic device." The patent application was filed on Feb. 1, 2012 (13/363,995). The full-text of the patent can be found at http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser Sect1=PTO2&Sect2=HITOFF&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsearch-bool.html&r=1&f=G&l=50&co1=AND&d=PTXT&s1=8,363,686&OS=8,363,686&RS=8,363,686 Written by Satyaban Rath; edited by Hemanta Panigrahi.

*** ExxonMobil Upstream Research Assigned Patent ALEXANDRIA, Va., Feb. 1 -- ExxonMobil Upstream Research, Houston, has been assigned a patent (8,363,510) developed by Krishnan Kumaran, Raritan, N.J., and Jingbo Wang, New York, for "detection of features in seismic images." The abstract of the patent published by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office states: "A computer implemented method for the detection of features such as faults or channels in seismic images. First, edges are detected in a smoothed seismic image (106). To detect a fault line, an image intensity of the edges is projected in multiple spatial directions, for example by performing a Radon transform (118). The directions of maximum intensity are used to define a fault line (124c). To detect channels, smooth curves are identified within the detected edges (810). Sets of parallel smooth curves (812a) are then identified and used to define channels (812)." The patent application was filed on Oct. 31, 2008 (12/741,133). The full-text of the patent can be found at http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser Sect1=PTO2&Sect2=HITOFF&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsearch-bool.html&r=1&f=G&l=50&co1=AND&d=PTXT&s1=8,363,510&OS=8,363,510&RS=8,363,510 Written by Satyaban Rath; edited by Hemanta Panigrahi.

*** Verizon New York Assigned Patent ALEXANDRIA, Va., Feb. 1 -- Verizon New York, New York, has been assigned a patent (8,363,631) developed by Shroeder Prudent, Brooklyn, N.Y., for a "navigation within a wireless network." The abstract of the patent published by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office states: "A wireless is registered in a first wireless router by storing information in the first wireless router, a message is created comprising a unique identifier for the wireless device and a unique identifier for the first wireless router; the message is transmitted to at least one second wireless router." The patent application was filed on Jan. 20, 2010 (12/690,472). The full-text of the patent can be found at http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser Sect1=PTO2&Sect2=HITOFF&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsearch-bool.html&r=1&f=G&l=50&co1=AND&d=PTXT&s1=8,363,631&OS=8,363,631&RS=8,363,631 Written by Satyaban Rath; edited by Hemanta Panigrahi.

*** International Business Machines Assigned Patent for Systems and Methods for Finding Star Structures as Communities in Networks ALEXANDRIA, Va., Feb. 1 -- International Business Machines, Armonk, N.Y., has been assigned a patent (8,363,570) developed by Sougata Mukherjea, New Delhi, India, Amit A. Nanavati, New Delhi, India, and Usha N. Raghavan, Tarrytown, N.Y., for "systems and methods for finding star structures as communities in networks." The abstract of the patent published by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office states: "Embodiments of the invention provide systems, methods, apparatuses and program products providing methods to define and find relationships in network environments. Embodiments of the invention utilize relationship definitions for defining network environment relationships as star structures within the network of interest and automatically discover these star structures in networks." The patent application was filed on Jan. 30, 2010 (12/697,238). The full-text of the patent can be found at http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser Sect1=PTO2&Sect2=HITOFF&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsearch-bool.html&r=1&f=G&l=50&co1=AND&d=PTXT&s1=8,363,570&OS=8,363,570&RS=8,363,570 Written by Satyaban Rath; edited by Hemanta Panigrahi.

*** New York University Assigned Patent ALEXANDRIA, Va., Feb. 1 -- New York University, New York, has been assigned a patent (8,363,465) developed by Andrew Kent, New York, Daniel Stein, New York, and Jean-Marc Beaujour, Elmhurst, N.Y., for a "high speed low power magnetic devices based on current induced spin-momentum transfer." The abstract of the patent published by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office states: "A high speed and low power method to control and switch the magnetization direction and/or helicity of a magnetic region in a magnetic device for memory cells using spin polarized electrical current. The mapetic device comprises a reference magnetic layer with a fixed magnetic helicity and/or magnetization direction and a free magnetic layer with a changeable magnetic helicity and/or magnetization direction. The fixed magnetic layer and the free magnetic layer are preferably separated by a non-magnetic layer. The fixed and free magnetic layers may have magnetization directions at a substantially nonzero angle relative to the layer normal. A current can be applied to the device to induce a torque that alters the magnetic state of the device so that it can act as a magnetic memory for writing information. The resistance, which depends on the magnetic state of the device, is measured to read out the information stored in the device." The patent application was filed on March 4, 2011 (13/041,104). The full-text of the patent can be found at http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser Sect1=PTO2&Sect2=HITOFF&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsearch-bool.html&r=1&f=G&l=50&co1=AND&d=PTXT&s1=8,363,465&OS=8,363,465&RS=8,363,465 Written by Satyaban Rath; edited by Hemanta Panigrahi.

*** International Business Machines Assigned Patent for Implementing Loading and Heat Removal for Hub Module Assembly ALEXANDRIA, Va., Feb. 1 -- International Business Machines, Armonk, N.Y., has been assigned a patent (8,363,404) developed by five co-inventors for an "implementing loading and heat removal for hub module assembly." The co-inventors are John L. Colbert, Byron, Minn., Jason R. Eagle, Kasson, Minn., Roger D. Hamilton, Rochester, Minn., Kenneth C. Marston, Poughquag, N.Y., and Steven P. Ostrander, Poughkeepsie, N.Y.

The abstract of the patent published by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office states: "A method and apparatus are provided for implementing loading and heat removal for a hub module assembly. The hub module assembly includes a hub chip and a plurality of optical modules attached by land grid array (LGA) assembly disposed on a top surface metallurgy (TSM) LGA residing on a hub ceramic substrate. The ceramic substrate is connected to a circuit board through a bottom surface metallurgy (BSM) LGA assembly. A base alignment ring includes a plurality of alignment features for engaging the circuit board and locating an LGA interposer of the BSM LGA assembly. Each of a pair of top alignment rings includes cooperating alignment features for engaging and locating a respective LGA interposer of respective LGA sites of the TSM LGA assembly. The two LGA interposers of the TSM LGA assembly align, retain, and make the electrical connection between the optical modules and the hub chip." The patent application was filed on Dec. 14, 2010 (12/967,854). The full-text of the patent can be found at http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser Sect1=PTO2&Sect2=HITOFF&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsearch-bool.html&r=1&f=G&l=50&co1=AND&d=PTXT&s1=8,363,404&OS=8,363,404&RS=8,363,404 Written by Satyaban Rath; edited by Hemanta Panigrahi.

*** International Business Machines Assigned Patent for Altering Capacitance of MIM Capacitor Having Reactive Layer Therein ALEXANDRIA, Va., Feb. 1 -- International Business Machines, Armonk, N.Y., has been assigned a patent (8,363,379) developed by Daniel C. Edelstein, White Plains, N.Y., and Anthony K. Stamper, Williston, Vt., for an "altering capacitance of MIM capacitor having reactive layer therein." The abstract of the patent published by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office states: "Embodiments of a method include forming a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitor including a first electrode and a second electrode and an insulator layer between the first and second electrodes, the MIM capacitor also including a reactive layer; and altering the reactive layer to change a capacitive value of the MIM capacitor." The patent application was filed on Aug. 18, 2010 (12/858,953). The full-text of the patent can be found at http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser Sect1=PTO2&Sect2=HITOFF&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsearch-bool.html&r=1&f=G&l=50&co1=AND&d=PTXT&s1=8,363,379&OS=8,363,379&RS=8,363,379 Written by Satyaban Rath; edited by Hemanta Panigrahi.

*** Corning Assigned Patent ALEXANDRIA, Va., Feb. 1 -- Corning, Corning, N.Y., has been assigned a patent (8,362,407) developed by five co-inventors for an "apparatus for particle synthesis." The co-inventors are Calvin Thomas Coffey, Watkins Glen, N.Y., Andrey V. Filippov, Painted Post, N.Y., Clinton Damon Osterhout, Beaver Dams, N.Y., Martin Andrew Sala, Campbell, N.Y., and Carlton Maurice Truesdale, Corning, N.Y.

The abstract of the patent published by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office states: "An apparatus for small particle and nanoparticle synthesis. A durable particle generator capable of high temperature particle synthesis. The particle generator is configured as to minimize susceptor degradation associated with harsh reaction conditions, for example, using encased susceptors." The patent application was filed on Nov. 4, 2010 (12/939,445). The full-text of the patent can be found at http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=83,62,407.PN.&OS=PN/83,62,407&RS=PN/83,62,407 Written by Amal Ahmed; edited by Jaya Anand.

*** General Electric Assigned Patent for Intermediates for Hydroxylated Contrast Enhancement Agents ALEXANDRIA, Va., Feb. 1 -- General Electric, Schenectady, N.Y., has been assigned a patent (8,362,281) developed by Brian James Grimmond, Clifton Park, N.Y., Michael James Rishel, Saratoga Springs, N.Y., and Rong Zhang, Niskayuna, N.Y., for "intermediates for hydroxylated contrast enhancement agents." The abstract of the patent published by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office states: "In one aspect, the present invention provides a protected ligand precursor having structure XX ##STR00001## wherein R.sup.8 is independently at each occurrence a protected hydroxy group, a protected C.sub.1-C.sub.3 hydroxyalkyl group, or a C.sub.1-C.sub.3 alkyl group, and b is 0-4; R.sup.9-R.sup.11 are independently at each occurrence hydrogen, a protected C.sub.1-C.sub.3 hydroxyalkyl group, or a C.sub.1-C.sub.3 alkyl group, with the proviso that at least one of R.sup.8-R.sup.11 is a protected hydroxy group or a protected C.sub.1-C.sub.3 hydroxyalkyl group; and R.sup.12 and R.sup.13 are independently at each occurrence a protecting group is selected from the group consisting of C.sub.1-C.sub.30 aliphatic radicals, C.sub.3-C.sub.30 cycloaliphatic radicals, and C.sub.2-C.sub.30 aromatic radicals." The patent application was filed on March 31, 2010 (12/751,286). The full-text of the patent can be found at http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=83,62,281.PN.&OS=PN/83,62,281&RS=PN/83,62,281 Written by Amal Ahmed; edited by Jaya Anand.

*** University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Assigned Patent ALEXANDRIA, Va., Feb. 1 -- University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, N.C., has been assigned a patent (8,362,312) developed by five co-inventors for supported iridium catalysts. The co-inventors are Maurice Brookhart, Carrboro, N.C., Alan Goldman, Highland Park, N.J., Emily Carson, Raleigh, N.C., Zheng Huang, Irbana, Ill., and Sabuj Kumar Kundu, Rochester, N.Y.

The abstract of the patent published by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office states: "A method of converting at least one first alkane to a mixture of at least one low molecular weight alkane (optionally also including additional lower and/or higher molecular weight alkanes) and at least one high molecular weight alkane, comprises: reacting a first alkane in the presence of dual catalyst system comprising a first catalyst (i.e., a hydrogen transfer catalyst) and a second catalyst (i.e., a metathesis catalyst) to produce a mixture of low and high molecular weight alkanes." The patent application was filed on June 4, 2008 (12/663,044). The full-text of the patent can be found at http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=83,62,312.PN.&OS=PN/83,62,312&RS=PN/83,62,312 Written by Amal Ahmed; edited by Jaya Anand.

*** Kythera Biopharmaceuticals Assigned Patent ALEXANDRIA, Va., Feb. 1 -- Kythera Biopharmaceuticals, Calabasas, Calif., has been assigned a patent (8,362,285) developed by five co-inventors for a "preparation of bile acids and intermediates thereof." The co-inventors are Achampeta Rathan Prasad, Hyderabad, India, Roy A. Swaringen Jr., Durham, N.C., John Gregory Reid, Niskayuma, N.Y., Robert M. Moriarty, Michiana Shores, Ind., and Akhila Kumar Sahoo, Bhubaneswar, India.

The abstract of the patent published by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office states: "Synthetic methods for preparing deoxycholic acid and intermediates thereof are provided." The patent application was filed on Jan. 20, 2011 (13/010,727). The full-text of the patent can be found at http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=83,62,285.PN.&OS=PN/83,62,285&RS=PN/83,62,285 Written by Amal Ahmed; edited by Jaya Anand.

*** Enzo Biochem Assigned Patent ALEXANDRIA, Va., Feb. 1 -- Enzo Biochem, Farmingdale, N.Y., has been assigned a patent (8,362,250) developed by four co-inventors for "fluorescent dyes and compounds, methods and kits useful for identifying specific organelles and regions in cells of interest." The co-inventors are Praveen Pande, Holbrook, N.Y., Hilary J. Cox, Centerport, N.Y., Yuejun Xiang, Bayside, N.Y., and Wayne Forrest Patton, Dix Hills, N.Y.

The abstract of the patent published by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office states: "The present invention provides dyes and labeled reagents that may be used in the detection or quantification of desirable target molecules, such as proteins, nucleic acids and cellular organelles. Dyes are provided that may be used free in solution where the binding of the dye to the target molecule provides signal generation. Dyes provided in this invention can comprise reactive groups that may be used to attach the dyes to probes that will bind to desirable target molecules. The novel dyes of the present invention have been substituted with specific groups to provide beneficial properties." The patent application was filed on Sept. 21, 2009 (12/586,386). The full-text of the patent can be found at http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=83,62,250.PN.&OS=PN/83,62,250&RS=PN/83,62,250 Written by Amal Ahmed; edited by Jaya Anand.

*** Xerox Assigned Patent ALEXANDRIA, Va., Feb. 1 -- Xerox, Norwalk, Conn., has been assigned a patent (8,364,072) developed by Henry T. Bober, Fairport, N.Y., and James J. Spence, Honeoye Falls, N.Y., for a "reconfigurable sheet transport module." The abstract of the patent published by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office states: "A tightly integrated parallel printer includes a reconfigurable media path module that has a baffle that accepts sheets from above at a 12 o'clock position when in a first configuration and accepts sheets from a 6 o'clock position when in a second configuration. The two configurations of the baffle are established to permit one common media entry transport to be mounted in either of two positions, each satisfying one of the desired configurations." The patent application was filed on Sept. 17, 2008 (12/211,853). The full-text of the patent can be found at http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser Sect1=PTO2&Sect2=HITOFF&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsearch-bool.html&r=1&f=G&l=50&co1=AND&d=PTXT&s1=8,364,072&OS=8,364,072&RS=8,364,072 Written by Arpi Sharma; edited by Anand Kumar.

*** Hubbell Assigned Patent ALEXANDRIA, Va., Feb. 1 -- Hubbell, Shelton, Conn., has been assigned a patent (8,362,384) developed by Sorin Ioan Mortun, Irvington, N.Y., for an "anti-buckling housing for spring within a switch assembly." The abstract of the patent published by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office states: "A switch assembly includes a cover connected to a base to form a switch housing and a toggle switch movably connected to the housing. The toggle switch has a lower portion disposed within the housing and a handle disposed externally of the housing such that movement of the handle moves the toggle switch between off and on positions. A spring is disposed within the housing. A first end of the spring is connected to the base and a second end of the spring is connected to the lower portion of the toggle switch. A spring housing is disposed over at least a portion of the spring to prevent buckling of the spring when the spring moves with the toggle switch. By substantially preventing spring buckling, the switch assembly is safer and has a longer life." The patent application was filed on May 10, 2010 (12/776,675). The full-text of the patent can be found at http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=83,62,384.PN.&OS=PN/83,62,384&RS=PN/83,62,384 Written by Amal Ahmed; edited by Jaya Anand.

*** General Electric Assigned Patent for Power Delivery Unit, Plasma Spray System, and Method of Using Plasma Spray System ALEXANDRIA, Va., Feb. 1 -- General Electric, Schenectady, N.Y., has been assigned a patent (8,362,386) developed by Yuk-Chiu Lau, Schenectady, N.Y., and Joseph Albanese, Schenectady, N.Y., for a "power delivery unit, plasma spray system, and method of using plasma spray system." The abstract of the patent published by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office states: "Different plasma spray guns have differing current and voltage requirements for their operation. The spray guns generally fall into low voltage high current and high voltage low current types. The power requirements of the guns vary greatly in terms of overall power ranging from few tens of kilowatts to few hundreds of kilowatts. The guns also have wide ranging requirements for voltage and current. A power delivery unit is described in which the unit is capable of delivering the wide range of power as well as the wide ranges of voltage and current. A plasma spray system with such power delivery unit can universally operate both the low voltage high current and high voltage low voltage spray gun types. Such system can reduce capital and operation costs since shops need not maintain separate and incompatible plasma spray systems." The patent application was filed on June 9, 2010 (12/797,240). The full-text of the patent can be found at http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=83,62,386.PN.&OS=PN/83,62,386&RS=PN/83,62,386 Written by Amal Ahmed; edited by Jaya Anand.

*** Max-Planck-Gesellschaft zur Foderung der Wissenschaften, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, University of Massachusetts Assigned Patent ALEXANDRIA, Va., Feb. 1 -- Max-Planck-Gesellschaft zur Foderung der Wissenschaften, Munich, Germany, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass., Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, Mass., and the University of Massachusetts, Boston, have been assigned a patent (8,362,231) developed by Thomas Tuschl, Brooklyn, N.Y., Sayda Mahgoub Elbashir, Cambridge, Mass., and Winfried Lendeckel, Hohengandern, Germany, for a "RNA interference mediating small RNA molecules." The abstract of the patent published by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office states: "Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) induces sequence-specific post-transcriptional gene silencing in many organisms by a process known as RNA interference (RNAi). Using a Drosophila in vitro system, we demonstrate that 19-23 nt short RNA fragments are the sequence-specific mediators of RNAi. The short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are generated by an RNase III-like processing reaction from long dsRNA. Chemically synthesized siRNA duplexes with overhanging 3' ends mediate efficient target RNA cleavage in the lysate, and the cleavage site is located near the center of the region spanned by the guiding siRNA. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the direction of dsRNA processing determines whether sense or antisense target RNA can be cleaved by the produced siRNP complex." The patent application was filed on Jan. 6, 2010 (12/683,081). The full-text of the patent can be found at http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=83,62,231.PN.&OS=PN/83,62,231&RS=PN/83,62,231 Written by Amal Ahmed; edited by Jaya Anand.

*** International Business Machines Assigned Patent for Method and System for Assessing Reliability of Integrated Circuit ALEXANDRIA, Va., Feb. 1 -- International Business Machines, Armonk, N.Y., has been assigned a patent (8,362,794) developed by Fen Chen, Essex Junction, Vt., Kai D. Feng, Hopewell Junction, N.Y., and Zhong-Xiang He, Essex Junction, Vt., for a "method and system for assessing reliability of integrated circuit." The abstract of the patent published by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office states: "The present invention provides a method. The method includes operating a plurality of field-effect-transistors (FETs) under a first operation condition; reversing an operation direction for at least one of the plurality of FETs for a brief period of time; measuring a second operation condition of the one of the plurality of FETs during the brief period of time; computing a difference between the second operation condition and a reference operation condition; and providing a reliability indicator based upon the difference between the second and the reference operation conditions, wherein the plurality of FETs are employed in a single integrated circuit (IC)." The patent application was filed on July 23, 2009 (12/508,111). The full-text of the patent can be found at http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser Sect1=PTO2&Sect2=HITOFF&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsearch-bool.html&r=1&f=G&l=50&co1=AND&d=PTXT&s1=8,362,794&OS=8,362,794&RS=8,362,794 Written by Arpi Sharma; edited by Anand Kumar.

*** DOE Assigned Patent ALEXANDRIA, Va., Feb. 1 -- The U.S. Department of Energy has been assigned a patent (8,362,379) developed by Edwin Gerard Haas, Sayville, N.Y., Ronald Beauman, Hicksville, N.Y., and Stefan Palo Jr., East Patchogue, N.Y., for a remote switch actuator.

The abstract of the patent published by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office states: "The invention provides a device and method for actuating electrical switches remotely. The device is removably attached to the switch and is actuated through the transfer of a user's force. The user is able to remain physically removed from the switch site obviating need for protective equipment. The device and method allow rapid, safe actuation of high-voltage or high-current carrying electrical switches or circuit breakers." The patent application was filed on June 25, 2010 (12/823,426). The full-text of the patent can be found at http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=83,62,379.PN.&OS=PN/83,62,379&RS=PN/83,62,379 Written by Amal Ahmed; edited by Jaya Anand.

*** International Business Machines Assigned Patent for Engineered Interconnect Dielectric Caps having Compressive Stress and Interconnect Structures Containing Same ALEXANDRIA, Va., Feb. 1 -- International Business Machines, Armonk, N.Y., has been assigned a patent (8,362,596) developed by six co-inventors for an "engineered interconnect dielectric caps having compressive stress and interconnect structures containing same." The co-inventors are Stephan A. Cohen, Yorktown Heights, N.Y., Alfred Grill, Yorktown Heights, N.Y., Thomas J. Haigh Jr., Albany, N.Y., Xiao H. Liu, Yorktown Heights, N.Y., Son V. Nguyen, Yorktown Heights, N.Y., Thomas M. Shaw, Yorktown Heights, N.Y., and Hosadurga Shobha, Albany, N.Y.

The abstract of the patent published by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office states: "A dielectric capping layer having a dielectric constant of less than 4.2 is provided that exhibits a higher mechanical and electrical stability to UV and/or E-Beam radiation as compared to conventional dielectric capping layers. Also, the dielectric capping layer maintains a consistent compressive stress upon post-deposition treatments. The dielectric capping layer includes a tri-layered dielectric material in which at least one of the layers has good oxidation resistance, is resistance to conductive metal diffusion, and exhibits high mechanical stability under at least UV curing. The low k dielectric capping layer also includes nitrogen content layers that contain electron donors and double bond electrons. The low k dielectric capping layer also exhibits a high compressive stress and high modulus and is stable under post-deposition curing treatments, which leads to less film and device cracking and improved device reliability." The patent application was filed on July 14, 2009 (12/502,690). The full-text of the patent can be found at http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser Sect1=PTO2&Sect2=HITOFF&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsearch-bool.html&r=1&f=G&l=50&co1=AND&d=PTXT&s1=8,362,596&OS=8,362,596&RS=8,362,596 Written by Arpi Sharma; edited by Anand Kumar.

*** International Business Machines Assigned Patent for Semiconductor Nanostructures, Semiconductor Devices, and Methods of Making Same ALEXANDRIA, Va., Feb. 1 -- International Business Machines, Armonk, N.Y., has been assigned a patent (8,362,582) developed by Joerg Appenzeller, Valhalla, N.Y., Supratik Guha, Chappaqua, N.Y., and Emanuel Tutuc, Yorktown Heights, N.Y., for a "semiconductor nanostructures, semiconductor devices, and methods of making same." The abstract of the patent published by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office states: "A semiconductor structure is provided, which includes multiple sections arranged along a longitudinal axis. Preferably, the semiconductor structure comprises a middle section and two terminal sections located at opposite ends of the middle section. A semiconductor core having a first dopant concentration preferably extends along the longitudinal axis through the middle section and the two terminal sections. A semiconductor shell having a second, higher dopant concentration preferably encircles a portion of the semiconductor core at the two terminal sections, but not at the middle section, of the semiconductor structure. It is particularly preferred that the semiconductor structure is a nanostructure having a cross-sectional dimension of not more than 100 nm." The patent application was filed on March 7, 2011 (13/041,754). The full-text of the patent can be found at http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser Sect1=PTO2&Sect2=HITOFF&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsearch-bool.html&r=1&f=G&l=50&co1=AND&d=PTXT&s1=8,362,582&OS=8,362,582&RS=8,362,582 Written by Arpi Sharma; edited by Anand Kumar.

*** International Business Machines Assigned Patent for Method and Structure to Reduce Soft Error Rate Susceptibility in Semiconductor Structures ALEXANDRIA, Va., Feb. 1 -- International Business Machines, Armonk, N.Y., has been assigned a patent (8,362,600) developed by six co-inventors for a "method and structure to reduce soft error rate susceptibility in semiconductor structures." The co-inventors are Cyril Cabral Jr., Mahopac, N.Y., Michael S. Gordon, Yorktown Heights, N.Y., David F. Heidel, Mahopac, N.Y., Conal Eugene Murray, Yorktown Heights, N.Y., Kenneth Parker Rodbell, Sandy Hook, Conn., and Henry Hong Ki Tang, Poughkeepsie, N.Y.

The abstract of the patent published by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office states: "A method is disclosed that includes providing a semiconductor substrate having one or more device levels including a number of devices, and forming a number of wiring levels on a top surface of the one or more device levels, wherein one or more of the number of wiring levels includes one or more alpha particle blocking shields situated between at least one of the number of devices and a predetermined first location where a terminal pad will be formed in one of the wiring levels, the one or more alpha particle blocking shields placed at a second location, having one or more widths, and occupying a predetermined number of the wiring levels, sufficient to prevent a predetermined percentage of alpha particles of a selected energy or less expected to be emitted from an alpha particle emitting metallization to be formed adjacent and connected to the terminal pad from reaching the one device." The patent application was filed on Jan. 19, 2010 (12/689,268). The full-text of the patent can be found at http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser Sect1=PTO2&Sect2=HITOFF&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsearch-bool.html&r=1&f=G&l=50&co1=AND&d=PTXT&s1=8,362,600&OS=8,362,600&RS=8,362,600 Written by Arpi Sharma; edited by Anand Kumar.

*** General Electric Assigned Patent ALEXANDRIA, Va., Feb. 1 -- General Electric, Niskayuna, N.Y., has been assigned a patent (8,364,427) developed by four co-inventors for a flow sensor assemblies. The co-inventors are Ertugrul Berkcan, Clifton Park, N.Y., Shankar Chandrasekaran, Chennai, India, Bo Li, Rexford, N.Y., and Stanton Earl Weaver Jr., Northville, N.Y.

The abstract of the patent published by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office states: "A flow sensor assembly is provided and includes a flow conduit configured to impart a disturbance to a flow, multiple sensors disposed at respective sensing locations along the flow conduit. Each sensor is responsive to the disturbance of the flow and generates a corresponding response signal. The flow sensor assembly further includes a processor operably connected to each sensor, the processor being configured to compute a cross-correlation function between the response signals generated by said sensors, and determine a flow rate and a direction for the flow through the conduit based on the computed cross-correlation function. Additional flow sensor assembly arrangements are also disclosed." The patent application was filed on Jan. 7, 2010 (12/683,474). The full-text of the patent can be found at http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=8,364,427.PN.&OS=PN/8,364,427&RS=PN/8,364,427 Written by Kusum Sangma; edited by Anand Kumar.

*** International Business Machines Assigned Patent for Human Emotion Metrics for Navigation Plans and Maps ALEXANDRIA, Va., Feb. 1 -- International Business Machines, Armonk, N.Y., has been assigned a patent (8,364,395) developed by five co-inventors for a "human emotion metrics for navigation plans and maps." The co-inventors are Paul B. French, Cork, Ireland, Eric Thiebaut-George, Cork, Ireland, Niall Jude Lucey, Cork, Ireland, Edith Helen Stern, Somers, N.Y., and Michael Truss, Cork, Ireland.

The abstract of the patent published by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office states: "An enhanced navigation system allowing navigation route and destination planning according to user-specified criteria for the emotion state of persons along the route, at the destination, or both. The enhancement is accomplished by receiving a set of human emotion metrics corresponding to one or more parts of a navigation plan; determining if the human emotion metrics meet one or more user-specified criteria; responsive to not meeting the criteria, determining an alternate navigation plan until the user-specified criteria are met; and responsive to the criteria being met, presenting the navigation plan to the user for laying into a navigation system, and optionally during execution of the navigation plan updating the received human emotion metrics; repeating the determination against the user-specified criteria; and repeating the steps of determining an alternate navigation plan and presentation to a user responsive to the updated human emotion metrics not meeting the user-specified criteria." The patent application was filed on Dec. 14, 2010 (12/967,519). The full-text of the patent can be found at http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=8,364,395.PN.&OS=PN/8,364,395&RS=PN/8,364,395 Written by Kusum Sangma; edited by Anand Kumar.

*** General Electric Assigned Patent for Sensor System and Methods for Selective Analyte Detection Using Resonance Sensor Circuit ALEXANDRIA, Va., Feb. 1 -- General Electric, Niskayuna, N.Y., has been assigned a patent (8,364,419) developed by five co-inventors for a "sensor system and methods for selective analyte detection using resonance sensor circuit." The co-inventors are Radislav Alexandrovich Potyrailo, Niskayuna, N.Y., James Anthony Cella, Clifton Park, N.Y., Cheryl Margaret Surman, Albany, N.Y., Kelly Scott Chichak, Clifton Park, N.Y., and Steven Go, Schenectady, N.Y.

The abstract of the patent published by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office states: "A system, device and methods, for determining at least two analytes, wherein the system and device include at least one resonant sensor circuit that includes a sensing material that predictably affects the resonant complex impedance response of a sensor electrode. The sensing material has at least two material properties that change when the materials are exposed to two or more analytes. The system and device also include a processor that generates a multivariate sensor response pattern that is based at least in part on a change in the two material properties of the sensing material." The patent application was filed on April 15, 2009 (12/424,016). The full-text of the patent can be found at http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=8,364,419.PN.&OS=PN/8,364,419&RS=PN/8,364,419 Written by Kusum Sangma; edited by Anand Kumar.

*** Nielsen Assigned Patent ALEXANDRIA, Va., Feb. 1 -- Nielsen, Schaumburg, Ill., has been assigned a patent (8,364,429) developed by John Houston, New York, Arun Ramaswamy, Tampa, Fla., and Brian Hopkins, Jersey City, N.J., for "systems and methods for metering and analyzing energy consumption of events within a portable device." The abstract of the patent published by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office states: "System and methods to determine the energy consumption per event type from usage data of portable devices are described. An example method to determine the energy consumption of events on a portable device includes receiving data associated with events occurring using at least a portion of the portable device during a time period, the data including a time at which each event type occurred and a total power consumed by the at least the portion of the portable device during the time period, analyzing, via a processor, the received data to determine an energy consumption per an event type of the at least a portion of the portable device based on the times at which each of the event types occurred and the total power consumed, and reporting the energy consumption per the event type for the at least the portion of portable device ." The patent application was filed on Aug. 31, 2011 (13/222,969). The full-text of the patent can be found at http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=8,364,429.PN.&OS=PN/8,364,429&RS=PN/8,364,429 Written by Kusum Sangma; edited by Anand Kumar.

*** Xerox Assigned Patent for Updating Authentication Server Lists for Users Accessing Shared Access Devices ALEXANDRIA, Va., Feb. 1 - Xerox, Norwalk, Conn., has been assigned a patent (8,363,244) developed by six co-inventors for an "updating authentication server lists for users accessing shared access devices." The co-inventors are Robert B. Wilkie, Rochester, N.Y., Kenneth B. Schleede, Webster, N.Y., Michael W. Barrett, Fairport, N.Y., Parul Patel, Fairport, N.Y., Eric Lambert, Macedon, N.Y., and Christian G. Midgley, Fairport, N.Y.

The abstract of the patent published by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office states: "A method, service, system, computer program, etc., provides a list of acceptable authentication servers that a user could use to log in when accessing a networked device, such as a networked printer or document processing device. The embodiments include preparing a module, such as a dynamically loadable module (DLM) for use in the networked system accessed by the users. Each of the networked devices is enabled to accept the DLM. The embodiments forward the DLM to the networked devices as a print job along a print job submission path within the network. The networked devices recognize the DLM as a special job. Further, the networked devices use the DLM to install the XML file on each of the networked devices. Thus, the authentication server lists and authentication programs are updated within each of the networked devices using the DLM." The patent application was filed on March 27, 2007 (11/691,732). The full-text of the patent can be found at http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=8,363,244.PN.&OS=PN/8,363,244&RS=PN/8,363,244 Written by Kusum Sangma; edited by Anand Kumar.

*** University of Rochester Assigned Patent ALEXANDRIA, Va., Feb. 1 -- The University of Rochester, Rochester, N.Y., has been assigned a patent (8,363,225) developed by Jannick P. Rolland, Pittsford, N.Y., Kye-Sung Lee, Rochester, N.Y., and Panomsak Meemon, Rochester, N.Y., for an "optical coherence tomography (OCT) apparatus, methods, and applications." The abstract of the patent published by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office states: "A free-space Michelson Interferometer-based Dual Detection Frequency Domain-Optical Coherency Tomography (DD-FD-OCT) apparatus includes a non-polarizing beam splitter that can be used to misalign sample and reference beam paths to provide a stable .pi./2 phase shift between simultaneously detected interfering sample and reference beams to eliminate the mirror image created by Fourier transformation during image reconstruction. A hybrid fiber system Mach Zehnder Interferometer- and free-space Michelson Interferometer-based Dual Detection Frequency Domain-Doppler Optical Coherency Tomography (DD-FD-DOCT) apparatus provides higher power efficiency and thus better sensitivity compared to the free-space DD-FD-OCT. Both DD-FD-OCT systems enable functional imaging with the contrasts of Doppler and that of polarization, in addition to full range images simultaneously." The patent application was filed on Jan. 14, 2011 (13/006,535). The full-text of the patent can be found at http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=8,363,225.PN.&OS=PN/8,363,225&RS=PN/8,363,225 Written by Kusum Sangma; edited by Anand Kumar.

*** General Electric Assigned Patent for Method and Systems for Virtual Sensor Selection and Blending ALEXANDRIA, Va., Feb. 1 -- General Electric, Schenectady, N.Y., has been assigned a patent (8,364,340) developed by four co-inventors for a "method and systems for virtual sensor selection and blending." The co-inventors are Brian Francis Nestico, Mason, Ohio, Sridhar Adibhatla, Glendale, Ohio, David Allen Gutz, Danvers, Mass., and Daniel Edgardo Viassolo, Schenectady, N.Y.

The abstract of the patent published by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office states: "A method and systems for engine control of a vehicle propulsion system are provided. The system includes a plurality of engine model modules executing independently and programmed to receive engine operating condition values from a plurality of sensors positioned on an engine wherein each of the plurality of engine model modules is programmed to determine an estimate of a process parameter of a location in the engine where a sensor is not available, not present at the location, has failed, or is determined to be inaccurate. The system also includes an estimate source selector configured to determine model blending factors and a model blending module configured to determine an estimated virtual sensor value using the determined estimates from at least two of the plurality of engine model modules and the model blending factors." The patent application was filed on March 31, 2009 (12/415,487). The full-text of the patent can be found at http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=8,364,340.PN.&OS=PN/8,364,340&RS=PN/8,364,340 Written by Kusum Sangma; edited by Anand Kumar.

*** Xerox Assigned Patent ALEXANDRIA, Va., Feb. 1 -- Xerox, Norwalk, Conn., has been assigned a patent (8,363,280) developed by Edul N. Dalal, Webster, N.Y., and Robert P. Loce, Webster, N.Y., for a "system and method of halftone printing of image spot colors using ranked ordered pairing of colorants and halftone screens." The abstract of the patent published by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office states: "Systems and methods of halftoning an image for extended-colorant printing image spot colors are provided which perform a quality ranking of a plurality of periodic halftone screens to be used in halftoning the image and an objectionability ranking of the colorants used to produce the one or more image spot colors. Halftone screen-to-colorant assignments are then made using a ranked ordered pairing of the ranked screens and ranked colorants. The image is halftoned using these assignments and the results can be printed or saved for future printing. Pixel tags can be used to identify the ranked ordered halftone screen-to-colorant assignments." The patent application was filed on Aug. 5, 2009 (12/536,046). The full-text of the patent can be found at http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=8,363,280.PN.&OS=PN/8,363,280&RS=PN/8,363,280 Written by Kusum Sangma; edited by Anand Kumar.

*** General Electric Assigned Patent for System and Method for Monitoring a Wind Turbine Gearbox ALEXANDRIA, Va., Feb. 1 -- General Electric, Niskayuna, N.Y., has been assigned a patent (8,364,424) developed by five co-inventors for a "system and method for monitoring a wind turbine gearbox." The co-inventors are Huageng Lou, Clifton Park, N.Y., Darren Lee Hallman, Scotia, N.Y., Robert Arvin Hedeen, Clifton Park, N.Y., Michael Sirak, Erie, Pa., and Dennis Richter, Lawrence Park, Pa.

The abstract of the patent published by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office states: "A system and method are provided to monitor the health of a wind turbine gearbox. The system includes a plurality of sensors coupled to the wind turbine gearbox and a controller coupled to the plurality of sensors. The controller is configured to acquire vibration information from a vibration sensor, acquire a tachometer signal, convert the tachometer signal and the vibration information into a cycle domain signal, and perform an order analysis on the cycle domain signal, the order analysis providing information that identifies potential and actual damage within the wind turbine gearbox." The patent application was filed on July 30, 2010 (12/847,331). The full-text of the patent can be found at http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=8,364,424.PN.&OS=PN/8,364,424&RS=PN/8,364,424 Written by Kusum Sangma; edited by Anand Kumar.

*** Facebook Assigned Patent ALEXANDRIA, Va., Feb. 1 -- Facebook, Menlo Park, Calif., has been assigned a patent (8,364,400) developed by Stephen J. Coughlin, Falls Church, Va., Adrienne C. Meisels, New York, and Steven E. Greenberg, Frederick, Md., for "meeting notification and modification service." The abstract of the patent published by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office states: "Techniques are described for providing a meeting notification and automatic modification service. A system may be configured to identify an appointment in a calendar application, identify a geographic location of the appointment, and identify, before the appointment time, a geographic location of a first participant of the appointment. Based on the geographic information, the system may identify a route extending from the geographic location of the first participant to the geographic location of the appointment, and may identify a travel time associated with the route. Based on the travel time and the appointment time, the system may determine whether the first participant is estimated to arrive at the appointment on time and, based on the determination, the system may send a message to participants of the appointment or dynamically reschedule the appointment." The patent application was filed on Nov. 14, 2011 (13/296,130). The full-text of the patent can be found at http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=8,364,400.PN.&OS=PN/8,364,400&RS=PN/8,364,400 Written by Kusum Sangma; edited by Anand Kumar.

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